Amazon needs to confront the environmental liabilities, says reportMonday June 6th, 2016
It is necessary to recover the liabilities accumulated deforestation and start the recovery process that was destroyed in the Amazon rainforest. This is the conclusion of a report released on Thursday in Sao Paulo (30) meets in simple language the findings of nearly 200 scientific studies on the forest.
According to the report The Amazon Climate Future zero deforestation is no longer enough to ensure that the forest continues to act as regulatory climate and rain and exporter of environmental services to productive areas. In Brazil alone, the deforested forest area is three times that of the state of São Paulo: 763 000 km2.
Led by researcher Antonio Donato Nobre, of the National Institute for Earth System Science Center for Space Research – INPE, at the request of Articulación Regional Amazon (ARA), the study shows that as they are about 20% of the forest already cleared and another 20 degraded%, it is at the limit and starts to fail in its climate regulatory role in South America. the biogeochemical Antonio Nobre, of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) conducted the study and states that it is necessary to start an extensive reforestation since the drought in the southeast may result from destruction of the Amazon.
According to Noble, the Amazon forest does not keep the moist air just for herself.It exports this moisture through air vapor rivers, the so-called “flying rivers” that irrigate areas such as Southeast, Midwest and South of Brazil and other areas like the Pantanal and the Chaco, as well as Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina . “Without the services of the forest, these productive regions could have an inhospitable climate, almost desert.”
This competence to regulate the climate is mainly the innate ability of trees to transfer large volumes of ground water to the atmosphere through transpiration. There are 20 billion tons of perspiration water per day, equivalent to 20 trillion liters. To get an idea, the volume dumped in the Atlantic Ocean by the Amazon River is just over 17 billion tons daily. “The trees act as wooden geysers, spouting this immense volume of water in the vaporous atmosphere.”
A new physical theory described in the report maintains that the excessive sweating of the trees, married to a very strong condensation in the formation of clouds and rain – condensation that higher than that in the adjacent oceans – leads to a lowering of atmospheric pressure on the forest, which sucks moist air over the ocean into the mainland, keeping rain in any circumstances. For Noble, favoring these effects make the forest the best and most valuable partner in all human activities that require rain in due measure, a mild climate and protection of extreme events.
But deforestation can put all these at-risk forest attributes. Recognized climate models anticipate varied harmful effects of deforestation on the climate, predictions that have been confirmed by observations. These include the dramatic reduction in sweating, changes in the dynamics of clouds and rains and prolonged dry season in deforested areas. Other unforeseen effects such as smoke and soot damage to the dynamics of rainfall, even over areas of pristine forest, are also being observed.
Several studies suggest that the forest in its original condition, having endured by tens of millions of years, has great resistance to climatic cataclysms. But when it is slaughtered or weakened by chainsaws, tractors and fire your immunity is broken. In the calculations of Noble, Amazon occupation has destroyed at least 42 billion trees, ie more than 2000 trees per minute – without interruption – for the past 40 years. The damage of such devastation is already being felt in the near and distant climate of the Amazon, and forecasts indicate aggravated this situation if deforestation continues and the forest is not restored.
Among the mitigating measures, the study proposes “universal access to scientific discoveries that can reduce the pressure of the main cause of deforestation: ignorance.” And we must act, recommended the document, which speaks in a “war effort” to reverse the current situation.
To Sérgio Guimarães, coordinator of the Regional ARA, The Amazon Climate Future is a great contribution in this direction. “We intend to promote this publication is precisely to make this knowledge accessible to various sectors of society. When everyone understands the importance of forests to our economy and our lives, for sure it will be at the center of our discussions and our public policy, “says Guimarães.